The City Palace Jaipur

by Rohit Rathore

The City Palace, Jaipur, was built in 1727 under its name Jaipur as a Maharaja Sawai Jai Singh II, who moved his Palace to Jaipur from Amber in 1727. Jaipur is the capital of Rajasthan. Rajasthan was the capital of Rajasthan, and from 1949 to 1949, it was also the city’s Palace. City Palace was the ceremonial and administrative Palace that served as the Palace of the Maharaja Jaipur.

The City Palace, Jaipur

The Palace was also the site for religious and cultural occasions and a patron of arts, trade, and industry. The Palace is currently where the Maharaja Sawai Man Singh II Museum is and is the home of the Jaipur Royal family.

The palace complex comprises many buildings, a variety of areas, including the courtyards, galleries, restaurants, and the headquarters, which make up the Museum Trust. Maharaja Sawai Man Singh II Museum Trust is responsible for the Museum and the crown of the cenotaphs (known by the name of Chhatris).

Maharaja Sawai Man Singh II Museum Trust

The MSMS II Museum Trust is led by the Chairperson Rajamata Padmini Devi of Jaipur (Sirmour in Himachal Pradesh). Princess Diya Kumari is the leader of the Museum Trust as its secretary and trustee. She also manages The Palace School and Maharaja Sawai Bhawani Singh School in Jaipur. She created and ran the Princess Diya Kumari Foundation to aid women in need in Rajasthan. She also runs a business. In 2013, she was elected a member of the Legislative Assembly of Rajasthan from the Sawai Madhopur. The Trust was established through Brig Sawai Bhawani Singh, the Maharaja’s last title.

Additional details and information about Dhundhar

The Palace complex is within the center of Jaipur city, north of the central area, and is located at 26.9255degN 75.8236degE. The Palace’s site was in an official hunting lodge within an area of plains surrounded by rocks that lie just five miles distant from Amber (city). The history of the Palace in the town is connected to the history of Jaipur city and its rulers. It all started during Maharaja Sawai Jai Singh II, who was in power from 1699 to 1744. He is said to be the one who initiated the building of Jaipur’s city complex by building the wall’s outer walls that stretch over a large area.

At first, the Maharaja was in charge of the capital city of Amber, which was located at an approximate distance of 11. kilometers (6.8 miles) from Jaipur. The capital was relocated to Amber and then moved in 1727. It was moved to Jaipur in 1727 because of the growing population and an increase in the amount of water.

He created Jaipur city divided into six blocks separated by broad avenues based on the foundations of Vastushastra and a similar classic treatise based on the architecture of Vidyadar Bhattacharya, who was an architect of the state of Bengal. Bengali architect from Naihati in modern-day West Bengal was initially an accountant in the Amber Treasury and then promoted to chief architect by the King.

After the death of Jai Singh in 1744, the country was in turmoil. There were conflicting factions within the Rajput ruling family from the district. But peace was maintained between them and those who ruled the British Raj. Maharaja Ram Singh sided with the British in the Sepoy Mutiny or Uprising of 1857. He was able to establish himself as one of the people that were Imperial rulers. This is because the whole city of Jaipur and all its famous landmarks (including the City Palace) are stucco painted pink. Since that time, the city has been known by the name of “Pink City.”

The change in the color scheme was to honor the gesture of extended hospitality to the Prince of Wales (who later became King Edward VII) on his visit to the city. The color scheme has since become a symbol for Jaipur city.

Man Singh II, the adopted son of Maharaja Madho Singh II, was the last Maharaja of Jaipur to be removed from the throne by Jaipur’s Chandra Mahal palace in Jaipur. The Palace was a residence for the royal family when it was the time that Jaipur kingdom was joined with the Indian Union in 1949 (after Indian independence in August 1947) along with other Rajput states, including Jodhpur, Jaisalmer, and Bikaner.

Jaipur was declared the capital of Jaisalmer and the capital of Indian states Rajasthan and Rajasthan. Man Singh II had the privilege of having the Rajapramukh of his condition (present-day Governor of Rajasthan) for a brief period. He later became the ambassador of India for a short period to Spain.

While the Jaipur maharanis enjoyed pardah, they had an enormous amount of influence and power. Queens, usually the highest-ranking (Pat-Rani), can manage the kingdom or estates without the ruler’s authority. Two queens that had absolute power were Raja Man Singh of Dhoondhar’s Bhati family spouse and Maharaja Rai Singh of Bikaner’s wife, Rani Ganga Bai.

The wives and mothers from Rajput, the kings, chiefs, and their wives were expected to advise men about matters they believed violated the warrior’s code of ethics and conduct.

Women from the ruling castes or groups of warriors owned properties under their name with the right to land. Many women belonging to the warrior clan were granted land to meet their needs as personal jagirs as well as haath-kharch-ki-jagir (personal expenses from the province) from both family of origin and also from their families they were married to and managed by private officials (kamdars amils kamdars, kamdars, and dewans).

In zenanas, women were informed of their jagirs. Information regarding agriculture laws and orders and appeals from the peasants’ were passed on to their stewards or agents who received direct instructions from the women and had to answer only to them. The women used the money from their estates in the way they desired. Seven places to go to when you visit Jaipur.

Architecture of The City Palace Jaipur.

City Palace is in the central-northeast region of Jaipur city. It is laid out in a unique pattern, with wide avenues. It is a distinct and unique complex that includes courtyards built, pavilions gardens, temples, and gardens. The most well-known and frequented structures within the complex are Chandra Mahal, Mubarak Mahal, Shri Govind Dev Temple, along the City Palace Museum.

Govind Ji temple Ji temple

Govind Dev Ji’s temple, which is that is dedicated to the Hindu goddess Lord Krishna is part of the City Palace complex. Govind Dev is a significant deity featured in numerous paintings and on a vast pichchawi (painted background) displayed within the Painting and Photography gallery.

Gates to entry

Rajendra Pol

The Udai Pol close to Jaleb Chowk, the Virendra Pol near Jantar Mantar, along the Tripolia (three gates or pols) comprise the three primary entry points to the City Palace. Tripolia gate Tripolia gate is only used for the entry of the family of royals to the Palace. Visitors and the general public can access the complex via both the Udai Pol and the Virendra Poli. This Udai Pol leads to the Sabha Niwas (the Diwan-e-Aam or the hall for public audiences) via a series of tightly dog-legged turns.

The Virendra Poli connects towards the Mubarak Mahal courtyard, linked with the Sarvato Bhadra (the Diwan-e-Khas) via The Rajendra Pol. The gates were constructed at various times throughout the 18th and 19th centuries, as well as the 20th century and, are beautifully decorated in the styles of contemporary architecture that were prevalent in the period.

Sabha Niwas (Diwan-e-Aam)

Based on the design of a Mughal auditorium, the Diwan-eAam, also known as the Sabha Niwas, is a hall for the general public. It is a multi-cusped arch supported by columns of marble and a beautiful painted ceiling. Women could utilize the jalis located at the southern part of the hall to supervise the activities within the gallery. This also helped them get involved with the world outside as they followed the strict rules of purdah.

Salvato Bhadra (Diwan-e-Khas)

Left: Sarvato Bhadra. Right: Gangajali (Silver Urn)

Salvato Bhadra is a distinctive architectural design. The name is a reference to the structure’s shape. Sarvato Bhadra is a Sarvato Bhadra that can be described as a one-storey rectangular, open-air hall with rooms enclosed around the four corners. One of the purposes for the Sarvato Bhadra was that it was used as the Diwan-eKhas or it was the Hall of Private Audience, which allowed the ruler to meet with nobles and officials from the royal family in a more private and intimate setting than the larger space of Sabha Niwas in the next courtyard, which was accessible to many more.

However, it was also one of the most important buildings for ritual within the complex and remains an important place of worship and is the “living heritage.” Due to its position between the public spaces in addition to the residential residence, it’s traditionally been used for private functions , such as the coronation ceremony that the Maharajas Jaipur performed.

It continues to be used during ceremonies and royal occasions such as Dusshera. In the Gangaur and Teej celebrations, the image of Goddess Durga is displayed within her palanquin in the center of the hall prior to being paraded throughout the city.

In the festival of harvest, Makar Sankranti, paper kites from Maharaja Sawai Ram Singh II, who was born around 150 years ago, will be displayed in the central area. The rooftop is utilized to launch flying kites. It’s also used for modern celebrations such as weddings and parties.

Two massive sterling silver vessels are measuring 1.6 meters (5.2 feet) in height each, with a capacity of 4000 liters, and weighing 340 kilograms (750 pounds) on display. They were built of 14,000 silver coins that were melted without soldering. They are the holders of their Guinness World Record as the largest sterling silver vessel on the planet.

The Maharaja Sawai Madho Singh II explicitly commissioned these vessels to transport the waters of the Ganges to drink during his journey across the English Channel to England around 1902 (for Edward VII’s coronation). Therefore, the vessels are known as Gangajalis (Ganges-water Urns).

Pritam Niwas Chowk

It is the courtyard in the middle that gives accessibility to Chandra Mahal. In this area, there are four gateways (known by the name of Ridhi Sidhi Poli) that are decorated with designs that represent the four seasons and Hindu gods. The gates are the Northeast Peacock Gate (with motifs of peacocks on the entrance), which symbolizes autumn and dedicated Lord Vishnu, and The Southeast Lotus Gate (with continual floral and petal patterns) that evokes summer as well as dedicated to Lord Shiva and Goddess Parvati.

The Northwest Green Gate, also known as The Leheriya (meaning: “waves”) gate, which is green in hue that is reminiscent of spring, is dedicated to the god Lord Ganesha as well as it is the Southwest Rose Gate with repeated flowers that symbolize winter that is dedicated, Goddess Devi.

Chandra Mahal

The view of Chandra Mahal inside the Sarvato Bhadra courtyard. At the top of the idea is the flag of the royal family.
Chandra Mahal is one of the oldest structures of Chandra Mahal, which is one of the oldest buildings in the City Palace complex. It is built on seven floors, which was considered a sign of prosperity for Rajput rulers. The two first floors comprise Sukh Niwas (the house of pleasure) followed by the Rang Mahal (alternatively called Shobha Niwas) featuring colored glasswork, and finally Chhavi Niwas with its blue and white ornaments.

The final two floors are called the Shri Niwas and Mukut Mandir, the most critical pavilion in the Palace. Mukut Mandir is the crowning pavilion of this Palace. Mukut Mandir, which has a bangaldar roof, features an imperial standard from Jaipur, which is displayed at all times in addition to the quarter Flag (underscoring it with the word Sawai within the title) when the Maharaja has been at residence.

Right: Chandra Mahal in 1885 from the Jai Niwas garden. Right Chandra Mahal now from the Pritam Niwas Chowk.
There is an exciting story about the ‘one and a quarter flag which is the flag that represents the Maharajas in Jaipur. Emperor Aurangzeb, who was present at the wedding ceremony of Jai Singh, shook hands with the groom’s young bride and wished him luck at his wedding.

At this time, Jai Singh made an unintentional remark to the Emperor, stating that how he’d shaken hands with him was a sign that the Emperor needed to safeguard Jai Singh (Jai Singh) and his kingdom. Aurangzeb did not respond in anger at the joke, smiled, and awarded Jai Singh, the teen Jai Singh the title of “Sawai,” which is “one and a quarter.” Since then, the Maharajas had been able to prefix their names with the name. When they reside there, they can also fly a one and a quarter size flag on top of their structures and palaces.

Mubarak Mahal

The Mubarak Mahal courtyard in the City Palace was fully developed by 1900, when the architect for the court at the period, Lala Chiman Lal, designed the Mubarak Mahal at its center. Chiman Lal was working alongside Samuel Swinton Jacob, the state’s executive engineer. They also developed their own Rajendra Pol around the same time as the Mubarak Mahal and complemented it in appearance.

The façade that is the Mubarak Mahal faade features an open balcony that is the same to all four sides. the intricate carvings of White (and marble) and beige stone, giving the appearance that it is delicately decoupaged. This Mubarak Mahal was initially built to accommodate welcoming foreign guests. However, it is now home to the Museum’s offices and libraries on the first floor. It houses the Museum’s Textile Gallery in the basement.

Clock Tower, City Palace, Jaipur

It is located just to the south of Sabha Niwas. It’s a symbol of European influence on the Rajput court, as the clock was erected within a tower already in place in 1873. The watch, bought through Black and Murray & Co. of Calcutta, was designed to bring an element of Victorian effectiveness and punctuality to court proceedings.

Museum Galleries

Sabha Niwas (Hall of Audience)

The main room for the audience. It’s an ample space with two thrones in the center, as well as a collection of chairs around it, as if in a bar setting. The walls are large-scale paintings depicting the Maharajas from Jaipur as well as a vast picture hai (a backdrop for the shrine) and prominent paintings of the vibrant celebration of holi, as well as two paintings that depict the seasons of spring and summer (possibly created by an area called the Deccan).

Salvato Bhadra courtyard. The exhibits also find military medals and Polo trophies that mark the accomplishments that the rulers achieved. The room is lavish in its décor, including chandeliers and murals. The archways that are closed now that house the Holi paintings and the Summer and Spring portraits hang were taken down in recent years. Images from the time of Man Singh II, of the court that was present Lord Mountbatten’s and Lady Mountbatten’s trips to the court, and Lord Mountbatten’s visit towards Sarvato Bhadra courtyard.

Textile Gallery

The gallery is on the first floor in the Mubarak Mahal. There are a variety of fabrics and textiles like Maharaja Sawai Madho Singh I’s atmasukha Maharaja Sawai’s wedding JAMA and an assortment of costumes (angarakhas) that belonged to Maharaja Sawai Ram Singh II. It is worth looking at the rare pashmina rug, created by the artisans of Lahore or Kashmir about 1650. The gallery also displayed the Polo clothing and cups of Maharaja Sawai Man Singh II and the billiards suit that belonged to Maharaja Sawai Man Singh II.

Sileh Khana (Arms and Armour Gallery)

The Sileh Khana displays the various weapons that were used for the Kachhwaha Rajputs of Jaipur and Amber. The collection comprises the early 19th-century sword, with numerous ornaments on the handle, as the sword’s blade and Shamshir Shikargah.

As per Robert Elgood, two of the pieces displayed to have an animal chiseled across on the entire length (an idea borrowed from Europe which allows for decoration to create a more dramatic effect) the blade features raised designs, buildings as well as animals and birds decorated with gold. Damascening has been done in silver on the handle, as well on the blades. These swords were not intended to be used but were primarily designed for ornamental purposes.

The hilts depicted are different in style and can be dated to the work area set up by Maharaja Sawai Madho Singh II ( r. 1880 1922).

Some highlights of the collection are an ulwar owned by Maharaja Ram Singh Ji II (1835-80) (name written upon the edge) that had an overall length of 54cms – high-quality steel, single-edged blade, ricasso, low central fuller, and a false edge.

The gallery also displays the tulwar of Maharaja Sawai Madho Singh II (1912). The tulwar’s hilt is adorned with a chequered grip and pommel steel that are decorated with silver flowers. The blade is stamped on the forte and is adorned with the letter Trishul. It is more extensive and longer than usual, indicating a specific reason for its use.

Also, a gorgeously painted shield with the goddess of clans, Shila Mata, and hunting scenes. It belonged to Maharaja Sawai Pratap Singh. It is a stunning piece of the collection and a must-see piece. The case also contains the child’s turban, which resembles the turban and is an original piece.

The armor section shows helmets, also known as “Khud.” The most notable is the 16th century watered steel helmet that is extremely rare to come across. The helmet was embellished with a fake damascened band of decoration during the last period of Maharaja Sawai Ram Singh II (19th century). The price of watered steel was high and thus was used only sparingly.

Gallery for photography and painting.

One of the latest galleries in The Maharaja Sawai Singh II Museum is the Painting and Photography Gallery, which is where photographs and paintings from the 18th and 19th centuries of Jaipur are on display. The gallery focuses on the ways that traditional artistic practices were reshaped by cultural and political shifts as well as modern technology and new materials.

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